This at-a-glance briefing pulls together and highlights the learning from case reviews into the death or serious injury of a child where online abuse was a key factor.
It is based on case reviews published since 2008.
The internet poses new risks to children and presents new challenges for those working to protect them. In these case reviews, children died or were seriously injured in the following ways:
Social networking sites enable people greater control of how they present themselves. This can be used to manipulate and influence people they are in contact with online.
For example, adults can pose as young people in order to build up relationships with children. Over time these relationships can be used to groom and sexually exploit young people.
In other cases, the internet makes it easier for adults to start relationships with new partners whilst knowing very little about them. This allows abusive adults to target vulnerable single parents, which can put their children at risk.
Issues also arise when professionals make friends with children in their care or with parents through social networking sites. These virtual relationships can compromise the professionalism of staff, and can lead to inappropriate levels of intimacy between professionals and service users.
As children can access the internet via their mobile phones, parents and professionals often have little or no knowledge of children and young people's online lives.
For looked after children, whose contact with their birth parents may be supervised for their own protection, this means that they are now able to "secretly" communicate with their families via social networking sites and mobile phones. Unsupervised contact may lead to physical harm, through secret meet ups, or accidental disclosure of location; disruption of placements; and to emotional harm, through finding out unwelcome information about their birth families.
The secrecy around online communications prevents adults from witnessing and intervening to prevent abuse, and children from reporting their concerns to adults.
Online communication makes it easier to find, contact and interact with other people. This makes it easier for abusive adults to find, and build up relationships with vulnerable children and young people online.
The internet also enables people to connect with a community of like minded people. This includes people who share a sexual interest in children. By creating a network of contacts with a similar outlook, sexually abusive behaviour can become normalised or even encouraged. Vulnerable adults, with access to children, and a tendency towards abusive behaviour, can be groomed to sexually abuse children and share images with the wider community.
Ease of sharing information
Images of children, including self-generated pictures taken by young people, are easily shared with others online. Once a picture has been sent or posted, the sender has no control over who else it is shared with.
The analysis of case reviews includes a number of important lessons for policy makers.
E-safety policy and safe use of Information Communications Technology policies
It is important for all organisations working with children to have an e-safety policy for both children and staff to clarify appropriate and inappropriate behaviour online.
Policies should cover:
Organisations should also consider appointing an e-safety officer to make sure the policy is followed.
The analysis of case reviews also highlights a number of learning points for practice.
Raising awareness about online safety
Professionals should receive regular training on online risks, protecting children online, and reporting concerns. Parents and children should also be given the information and advice they need to help keep children safe online.
Making "friends"online and the privacy settings on social networking sites
Professionals should not communicate with children through online networking sites. Professionals should also avoid "friending" the parents of children in their care as this blurs the lines around maintaining a professional relationship.
Managing online relationships
Professionals or carers should explain to looked after children the physical and emotional risks of unmediated contact with their birth families, and explain why contact needs to be supervised and needs to happen in a safe and neutral environment. Professionals should also engage birth parents about appropriate methods and levels of contact with their children.
Professionals should encourage children and young people to talk about what they do online and who they communicate with. The risks involved in online contact are heightened in cases where children and young people feel they have to keep their experiences secret.
Restricting use of phones or digital cameras in the workplace
Workplaces should have clear rules restricting when and where it is appropriate for staff to use mobile phones and digital cameras.
Managing impact of viewing inappropriate images or contact on children and young people
A professional's inappropriate online relationship with one child in their care has an impact on the child’s wider group of friends. The nature of the internet means relationships often have an online audience. Children are less likely to view professionals, especially teachers, as protective influences if they see an inappropriate blurring of professional boundaries. When a school becomes aware of a case of online grooming, it should be discussed with the whole school and children should be given the chance to discuss how they have been affected by it.
Reporting online grooming
When a case of online grooming is identified it should be reported immediately to both the Child Exploitation and Online Protection (CEOP) centre and to the site on where the grooming took place. The local police force should also be contacted in cases where a child is thought to be at immediate risk of harm.
Using experts in cases involving technology
Images and messages which have been deleted from phones and computers can be retrieved by trained professionals. They are also able to trace the perpetrators as well as other children who have been abused. Cases should always be reported to the police, who have the expertise to investigate the case fully.
Treating online abuse as complex abuse cases
Professionals should remember that cases involving online abuse are rarely restricted to a single victim and perpetrator. The ability of the internet to connect abusers with both multiple victims and abusers means that reports of online abuse should always be treated as complex cases.
Fursland, E. (2011) Foster care and social networking: a guide for social workers and foster carers. London: British Association for Adoption and Fostering (BAAF)
Livingstone, S. and Haddon, L. (eds.) (2009) Kids online: opportunities and risks for children. Bristol: Policy Press