A collection of research publications on child trafficking in the UK.
It happens here: equipping the United Kingdom to fight modern slavery: a policy report by the Slavery Working Group (PDF).
Centre for Social Justice Slavery Working Group
Centre for Social Justice, 2013
Inquiry into modern slavery in the UK, examining the scale of the problem and the Government's response. Recommendations include: the appointment of an Anti-Slavery Commissioner to oversee and influence the Government's response to the problem; the passing of the Modern Slavery Act; changes in the way information is collected to capture the scale of the problem more effectively; mandatory training to equip social workers to identify and respond to the issue; long-term support to enable survivors to rebuild their lives.
Inquiry into human trafficking in Scotland: report of the Equality and Human Rights Commission (PDF).
Equality and Human Rights Commission, 2011
The findings of an inquiry into human trafficking in Scotland. Findings include: low awareness of trafficking; inconsistent legislation; and a lack of intelligence on human trafficking in Scotland.
Hidden children: the trafficking and exploitation of children within the home (PDF).
Child Exploitation and Online Protection (CEOP) Centre, 2011
Looks at the issue of children trafficked into the UK and exploited on a non-commercial basis, in domestic servitude. Identifies examples of modus operandi and techniques used by offenders in this form of exploitation. Also outlines, identifies and profiles the trends and characteristics of this form of abuse, and presents recommendations with UK-wide significance.
Scotland: a safe place for child traffickers?: a scoping study into the nature and extent of child trafficking in Scotland (PDF).
University of the Highlands and Islands. Centre for Rural Childhood and Scotland's Commissioner for Children and Young People
Edinburgh: Scotland's Commissioner for Children and Young People, 2011
Looks at the extent and nature of child trafficking in Scotland. Outlines findings from a literature review, an online survey, and interviews with professionals working in the field. Identifies the lack of a uniform process for the identification of victims of child trafficking, and professionals' lack of understanding of the complexity of the problem as key issues.
Child trafficking for forced criminality: discussion paper.
ECPAT UK, 2010
Brief discussion paper outlining key facts around the issue of children who are trafficked into the UK to carry out street crimes such as pick pocketing and forced begging. Looks at the extent of the problem; causes and context; familial exploitation; and national legislation and international obligations to tackle the problem.
Child trafficking in the UK: a snapshot (PDF).
ECPAT UK, 2010
Provides a snapshot of child trafficking in the UK assessing the scale of the problem and reviewing efforts to tackle it. Highlights gaps in the identification of child victims, the provision of care and support, and limitations in the attempts to investigate and prosecute child trafficking crimes. Concludes with policy recommendations.
Breaking the wall of silence: practitioners' responses to trafficked children and young people.
Pearce, J. J., Hynes, P. and Bovarnick, S.
A study of the issues faced by practitioners working with trafficked children and young people. Presents what is known about the trafficking of children in the UK and outlines the legal and policy frameworks. Discusses the findings from focus groups, interviews and case files. Highlights the difficulties in identifying trafficked children when those in need are afraid to talk and the general public lack any awareness. Considers the role of mainstream and specialist services. Appendices list indicators that a child may have been trafficked.
Child trafficking in the European Union: challenges, perspectives and good practices (PDF).
European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2009
Study of child trafficking in the EU. Includes comparative analysis of EU member states on trafficking laws and conviction rates and considers the difficulties in measuring the true incidence of trafficking. Provides good practice advice on how Europe should help victims and stop the escalation of trafficking.
Hidden children: separated children at risk (PDF).
London: The Children's Society, 2009
Explores the experience of trafficking and abuse from the point of view of migrant young people, based on the work of the Hidden Children research project. Considers types of exploitation or abuse; awareness in the UK; children's views of their experiences; disclosure; and possible locations and models for intervention and therapy. Makes recommendations for children's practitioners, statutory agencies, LSCB's, schools, voluntary and legal agencies.
A long way to go: the trafficking of children into the UK and the new European convention to protect them.
Seen and Heard 19(3), September 2009: 22-28
Explains the prevalence of trafficking in the UK, and provides examples of how and where it occurs including three brief case studies of young people. Describes European laws which aim to prevent trafficking and set out guidelines for how to protect children and young people who have been trafficked. Highlights the difficulties of protecting young people who are unable to prove their age and calls for more protection of these children once they are in local authority care.
Stolen futures: trafficking for forced child marriage in the UK (PDF).
London: ECPAT UK, 2009
Research of 48 documented cases of suspected trafficking for forced child marriage. Highlights routes into forced marriage, motives and methods of control and the mental health impact of forced child marriage. Concludes there is a need for more practitioner awareness and research.
Falling through the gaps: safeguarding children trafficked into the UK.
Children and Society 22(3), May 2008: 201-211
An overview of child trafficking in the UK, exploring the nature and methods of this abuse, as well as the treatment and protection afforded to trafficked children. It highlights the shortcomings and inconsistent standards of local authorities, the lack of specialist protection and the uncertainty of a trafficked child's immigration status.
Missing out: a study of child trafficking in the North-West, North-East and West Midlands (PDF).
ECPAT UK, 2007
Reports on findings from an investigation concerning 80 children known or suspected of being trafficked into the UK for sexual exploitation, labour exploitation and forced marriage. 48 of these children have gone missing from social services care and have never been found. Argues that separated children, especially those suspected of being trafficked, should be allocated a guardian with statutory responsibility to advocate of their behalf and to ensure appropriate services are provided.
A scoping project on child trafficking in the UK (PDF).
Child Exploitation and Online Protection (CEOP) Centre, 2007
A report to establish the nature and scale of child trafficking in the UK and the level of understanding of agencies in relation to this issue. Looks at the reasons and methods for trafficking and the profiles of the victims and the traffickers. Assesses the awareness levels of UK agencies and their ability to identify potentially trafficked children, collect data and work with other agencies.
Policy and guidance on child trafficking
Legislation, guidance and policy on child trafficking in the UK and worldwide.
Research on child sexual exploitation
A reading list of key research into child sexual exploitation.
Child sexual exploitation homepage
Our pages providing an introduction, research, statistics, policy, guidance and practice on child sexual exploitation.
Search the NSPCC Library Online for more publications and resources on child trafficking.
NSPCC's Child Trafficking Advice Centre (CTAC)
A specialist service providing information and advice to any professionals working with children or young people who may have been trafficked into the UK.
Listening and responding to children and young people who have experienced sexual exploitation and abuse
A specialist training course for professionals to develop knowledge and skills in active listening and taking creative approaches to listening to children and young people who have been sexually exploited.
Childtrafficking.com Digital library
A website maintained by the Swiss Foundation of Terre des hommes which provides access to online information from international sources on topics relating to child trafficking.