Child trafficking and modern slavery are child abuse. Children are recruited, moved or transported and then exploited, forced to work or sold.

Children are trafficked for:

  • child sexual exploitation
  • benefit fraud
  • forced marriage
  • domestic servitude such as cleaning, childcare, cooking
  • forced labour in factories or agriculture
  • criminal activity such as pickpocketing, begging, transporting drugs, working on cannabis farms, selling pirated DVDs and bag theft.

Many children are trafficked into the UK from abroad, but children can also be trafficked from one part of the UK to another.

Child Trafficking Advice Centre

If you work with children or young people who may have been trafficked into the UK, contact our specialist service for information and advice.

Call us or email for more information.

0808 800 5000

Find out more about CTAC

Abuse and neglect of trafficked children

Trafficked children experience multiple forms of abuse and neglect.

Physical, sexual and emotional violence are often used to control victims of trafficking. Children are also likely to be physically and emotionally neglected.

How child trafficking and modern slavery happens

Children are tricked, forced or persuaded to leave their homes. Traffickers use grooming techniques to gain the trust of a child, family or community.

They may threaten families, but this isn’t always the case – in fact, the use of violence and threats to recruit victims has decreased (Europol, 2011).

Traffickers may promise children education or persuade parents their child can have a better future in another place.

Sometimes families will be asked for payment towards the ‘service’ a trafficker is providing – for example sorting out the child’s documentation prior to travel or organising transportation.

Traffickers make a profit from the money a child earns through exploitation, forced labour or crime. Often this is explained as a way for a child to pay off a debt they or their family 'owe' to the traffickers.

Although these are methods used by traffickers, coercion, violence or threats do not need to be proven in cases of child trafficking - a child cannot legally consent so child trafficking only requires evidence of movement and exploitation.

Who trafficks children

Child trafficking is a hidden crime. So we don’t have a lot of information about who trafficks children. What we do know comes from small scale studies and our work with young people who have been trafficked:

Child trafficking requires a network of people who recruit, transport and exploit children and young people. Each group or individual has a different role or task. Some people in the chain might not be directly involved in trafficking a child but play a part in other ways such as falsifying documents, bribery, owning or renting premises or money laundering (Europol, 2011).

Traffickers may be:

  • individuals or small groups
    who recruit a small number of children - often from areas they know and live in
  • medium-sized groups
    who recruit, move and exploit, often on a small scale
  • large criminal networks
    that operate internationally, can deal with high-level corruption, money laundering and large numbers of victims (McRedmond, 2010).

Where trafficking happens across international borders, traffickers might be prosecuted in their home country so will not be recorded as a UK prosecution. 

It’s difficult to prosecute traffickers because:

  • legislation may be ineffective or may not exist
  • victims may be afraid or reluctant to give evidence
  • trafficking networks can make it difficult to gather evidence on individuals.

Other criminal activities involved in trafficking are often easier to prosecute – for example assisting unlawful immigration, rape, kidnapping/abduction, false imprisonment, threats to kill, causing, inciting or controlling prostitution for gain (HM Government, 2012).

Police often use disruption tactics to tackle human trafficking. This includes things like freezing the bank accounts of suspected traffickers or ensuring a strong police presence in known locations of exploitation. It’s a really effective way to help stop trafficking and is part of the UK government’s strategy but it doesn’t always end up in prosecution.

In March 2015 the Modern Slavery Bill received Royal Assent. The Act consolidates current offences relating to trafficking and slavery.

Find out more about legislation, policy and guidance which deals directly with child trafficking and modern slavery.

Gracie's story

Gracie tells how she was forced into sex work at age 11, then trafficked to the UK where later CTAC helped her claim asylum.
Read Gracie's story

Lam's story

Lam talks about how his desire to find employment in the UK was exploited by child traffickers, and how CTAC helped him.
Read Lam's story

Young girl smiling in a cafe

CTAC's Young People’s Advisory Group

The Young People’s Advisory Group helps young people’s voices to be heard. Find out more on joining the group:

information for young people (PDF)
information for professionals (PDF)

More about child trafficking and modern slavery

Signs, indicators and effects

Find out more about the signs, indicators and effects of child trafficking and modern slavery.

Identifying the signs of child trafficking

Who is affected by child trafficking and modern slavery

Boys and girls of all ages are victims of trafficking. 

Who is affected by child trafficking

Preventing child trafficking and modern slavery

How we can protect children and young people from child trafficking and modern slavery.

Protecting children from child trafficking

Helping children who have been trafficked

Find out how you can help protect children who have been trafficked or are at risk of child trafficking.

Keeping children safe from child trafficking

Research and resources for professionals

Facts and statistics

Read the lasts facts and statistics about child trafficking and modern slavery.

See facts and statistics

Research and resources

Read our service evaluations, research reports, briefings and leaflets about child trafficking and modern slavery.

See our research and resources

What you can do

Are you there for children's mental health?

We need to make sure every child always has a place to turn - night and day. Sign our petition calling on the government to help our Childline service be there for every child.

Sign the petition

Donate now

In the average primary school class, at least 2 children have suffered abuse or neglect. Donate now and help protect children today and prevent abuse from happening tomorrow.

Donate now

Work or volunteer with children and families?

Visit NSPCC Learning for information, resources and training to help you safeguard and protect children and young people across the UK.

Go to NSPCC Learning


  1. HM Government (2012) Report on the internal review of human trafficking legislation (PDF). London: [The Stationery Office].

  2. McRedmond, P. (2010) 'Defining organised crime in the context of human trafficking'. In: Wylie, G. and McRedmond, P. (eds.) Human trafficking in Europe: character, causes and consequences. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. pp.181-197.